The joy of learning! *1 The之れ points to they study of other classical texts and the rituals that seem have been so important back then. I don’t know if I would find all of that very interesting.*2  The時に means “timely” or “at regular intervals,” rather than “occasionally.” * So Confucius is saying that you should return to what you have studied and keep reviewing it, and by doing so your understanding will deepen and you will “make it your own.” Is this the motivation behind repetition?that if you say something over enough times, it becomes part of yourself? *4 Then Confucius goes on to say that there is nothing quite so pleasant as a visit from a friend coming from far away, because then you can talk about your studies with someone who feels the same way. But sometimes people don’t acknowledge or understand your studies, he says, and then it is gentleman-like not to get annoyed. These seem like good guides for life. Yoshikawa points out that means a continuous, sustainable happiness, while the associated with a friend’s happiness is a sudden happiness.* Also, he mentions that Confucius was the first to clearly point out the joys of learning.

*1 エリカさんの記録がThe joy of learning ! で始まるのは嬉しいですね。  
*2 中国では古い時代に最良のものがあるという考えがあり、孔子もその考えです。
*3 「時」には春夏秋冬という意味をはじめ色々の意味がありますが、私は、朱註に出てくる「時として習わざることなし」Alwaysという意味に取る謝氏の説が好きです。「学」「習」の内容をどう捉えるかにも関係があることですが・・・
*4 これにはこんな格言があります。
*5 朱熹は、説(悦)は心の中にあり、楽は外に発散すると言っています。



f you have good intentions in relation to your parents and siblings, if are loyal to your parents, you will not rebel against your superiors. And those who don’t rebel against their betters (can we equate目上の者 with “betters”? or are they people who have authority over others? *) will be unlikely to cause unrest. Gentlemen strive to master the basis because once these have been gained, morality will strengthen. Confucius seems to be saying filiality (good will in the family) is the basis for, or good will toward people in general.
I think we should respect our parents, and that this respect is the foundation for respect toward people in general. After all, your family is the group of people we are closest to and the first people we know well. * However, respect shouldn’t be conflated to blind obedience, and I don’t think it’s true that a filial, respectful person will not cause unrest, disorder, rebellion. There are good reasons for rebellion, such as unjust authority; does Confucius take this into account?*

*1 「上」即ち目上の人とはtheir betters people who have authority over othersの両方(and/or)を含む言葉です。
*2 Bibleに次のような言葉があります。
 If someone says I love God, and hates his brother, he is a lair. For he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen ?  (1 John 4.20)
*3 例外は孔子も認めると思います。同じ、議論が1−11でもあります。



Someone who speaks skillfully and elaborately, with practiced facial gestures, does not have. Yoshikawa points out here that a set of three words was written in a different order than it usually is, changing the emphasis.*

*1 語順の問題に興味を持たれたようですね。吉川先生が仰るのならその通りでしょう。簡野道明も同じ指摘をしています。しかし、漢文では有、無、多、少(鮮、・・)という言葉が前にきて、その後、それを補足して「何が」という言葉が来るケースの多いことも事実です。(藤堂明保著「漢文概説」)これから、気をつけてみてください。



I like this oneーthe idea of self-reflection on a regular basis. “Everyday I reflect on three things: am I faithful/loyal when speaking with friends, giving them advice and acting in their behalf? In my interactions with friends, am I truthful? Have I tried to teach others things that I haven’t fully learned or understood yet?” According to Yoshikawa, this shows that the Analects are not about perfecting oneself, all on one’s own, but about being careful in one’s relations with others.*

*1 この指摘は仁斎の言葉を吉川幸次郎が引いているのですが、続いて「ただ一人引きこもって自分の心を研ぎすますというのは論語の道徳ではない。」とあります。なるほどと思いました。



The commentator here says that the千乗 here denotes 1,000 tanks and that千乗之国means a region capable of dispatching 1,000 tanks and the commensurate number of soldiers. Specifically, it would be the regions controlled by the daimyo. The interesting part is the emphasis on the人民, and the suggestion that is in reference to trusting the people, not losing your faith in them. Along with the idea that citizens should not be used for public works during the harvest, it sounds almost revolutionary even in the contemporary period.

*1 どこがrevolutionaryと感じられましたか?



This is closer to the hierarchy/filiality I associated with Confucius. I guess the 入りて refers to the back of the house, or inner part, where the parents reside, and the 出でて is the front of the house. Be careful and cautious of everything and don’t lie. In relations with others, become close to men of character. And if after doing all of this, you still have more energy, read books (probably not the kind of books I’m interested in).*1

*1 読むのは難しいが、詩、春秋・・・と内容は面白いものがたくさんあります。少なくとも五経は全部読みたいと思っています。



I didn’t understand the first part: 堅を堅として色に易え; Yoshikawa says that this one little phrase has lots of interpretations. *1 He thinks the most convincing one is that we should respect sages as we respect beauties. In general, he seems to be saying that even if a person has not studied formally, as long as he respects sages, serves his parents to the best of his ability, able to offer everything to superiors, and is reliable and trustworthy, then he is a learned person.
Yoshikawa explains that身を致す just means accomplishing one’s work faithfully and loving it, as one would love oneself, not throwing one’s life away, and that such a pointless sacrifice is what a prostitute would do, or an uneducated person.

*1 色々に解釈できるのも古典の面白さですね。シェイクスピアでさえその解釈の多様さに驚きますが、論語は更に二千年古い。



You must be solemn to have authority. If you study, you will lose your stubbornness. Treat honesty as a cardinal moral. Do not become friends with those inferior to oneself. Correct one’s mistakes promptly. This is very abrupt and to the point! I don't really understand the part about losing one’s stubbornness by studying?why would that necessarily happen?

*1 固はstubbornnessですが、よくない意味、つまり、自分の考えに固執することです。学問をすれば視野が広なり、多様な立場、意見を受け入れることが出来ます。



The終りを慎み actually means to emphasize and carefully perform the rituals for funerals, and the遠きを追う means that one should continue to mourn one’s ancestors and perform the appropriate rituals for them. Then Soshi addresses statesmen, admonishing them to carry out the rituals because the masses would follow their example. I guess you can’t argue with that. Yoshikawa also writes that these rites were different depending on one’s class, but that even if the commoner’s rites were simpler, they would become more beautiful if they saw politicians performing theirs more faithfully.




Shikin was probably Confucius’ student, or Shika’s student. Fushi indicates Confucius. Shikin asks Shika if Confucius was asked to participate in the government of the countries he visited over half a lifetime, or if the overture came from him. Shika responds that this result was due to Confucius’ calmness, gentleness, respect, modesty and reserve. Shika goes on to say that this method is certainly different than other people’s methods.
Confucius traveled to various countries to put into place his political ideals. Yoshikawa comments that it is also clear that spoken style?colloquial style?is used here, and that this style is one reason for the title論語. In particular, the last phrase has additional words for rhythm and meaning. Theこれそれis there to add rhythm.*1
In a purely logical sense, I don’t see how Shika’s response answered Shikin’s question. Is he saying that Confucius’ very presence inspires statesmen to approach him for advice and guidance? Or is it just a device by which Shikin can make his point that those five virtues are very important?*2

*1 論語が孟子などに比べ難しいのは、この口語表現を写した助字が多いためです。古代中国語の発音で読めれば素晴らしいでしょうね。
*2 私は前者であると思います。直接孔子の風貌、言動に接した子貢が孔子に接したことのない子禽にその有様を伝えているのではないかと思います。



The best way to evaluate a person is to observe their attitude while their father is alive because while he is alive, the son can’t do anything of his own volition. And then when the father has died, watch the son’s actions. Filiality will be proven when the son does not change his father’s way of doing things for the three-year mourning period. This explains how to judge and evaluate someone based on their attitude to their father. Some interpretations contest that the 3-year rule is not unequivocal or unconditional (for example if the father’s way was not appropriate). One commentator wrote that filiality requires unquestioning observance of the three-year period, irregardless of the merit of the father’s actions, but that filiality is not the ultimate moral. If a more correct, superior moral is thought of, that should take primacy.*1

*1 このsuperior moralとして「義」があげられることが多い。



Rituals were seen as expressing the ideal principles of one’s cultural life, and Confucius emphasized them as such. This section states that the purpose of ritual is harmony, and they are also important and precious because they were formalized by the rulers who devised humanity’s laws and regulations. But if you rely entirely on this harmony, you become incapable of action. Confucian thought emphasizes that truth lies between two poles. When it comes to ritual, harmony is crucial, but we must not lose ourselves in the beauty of ritual. The other side of ritualーorderly performanceーis also important.

truth lies between two poles.という表現はこの章にぴったりですね。



ーfaithfully keeping promises?is not an absolute, it is not unconditional. The closer a promise is to righteousness, the deeper its significance becomes. Reverence is also not be praised without reservation. A reverence that draws together the rules of ritual removes any sense of embarrassment. Another interpretation asserts that is not equivalent to, but is close, just as “reverence” is not equivalent to, but is close. If you have, words become reliable, and if you have reverence, there is less risk that you will face embarrassment. The last phrase states that when choosing someone to depend on, you should not lose sight of those people it is natural for you to be close to, but Yoshikawa says that he’s not exactly sure about this.*1

*1 エリカさんが lose sight of those peopleと書いているとことは吉川幸次郎の「見失わない」の訳だと思いますが、これはその選択を誤らないという意味です。



Sages (gentlemen?)*1  should not eat until they are stuffed and should not require comfortable living conditions. That seems fairly straightforward, and reminiscent of Jesus’ example. *2 The section goes on to say that we should be prompt in action and careful with our words. We should also be wary of falling into error by undue reliance on our own judgment, so we should request the guidance of moral people. People who do this are fond of study. This harks backs to a previous section which states that a person has as good as studied if his actions show true morality.

*1 君子をどう訳すか困りますね!gentlemanで通す人もいますし、James Leggeのようにa superior man, a man of complete virtue, the accomplised schorar等と場所により使い分ける人もいます。
*2 これはBuddaも同じですね。
*3 言葉より実行を重んずる孔子の考えが、ここでも繰り返されています。



Shiko asks, what about being poor without being servile, and being rich without being proud? Confucius says that this is ok, but that it is even better to be poor and yet enjoy it, and to be rich but like ritual. The poem quoted says that bone, ivory, jewels and stones are all polished, and moral men must not neglect to “polish” their morals. Shiko says that not only are poor men not servile, but they enjoy life, and rich men not only avoid pride but enjoy ritual, just as inherently beautiful objects like bone, ivory, jewel and stone can be polished to be even more beautiful. Confucius tells Shiko (using an affectionate name for him) that he can truly discuss poetry with him, and that he really understands poetry.
means “the future,” and Confucius is telling Shiko that he should latch on to phrases from poems that express future conditions and invest the poem with new life.




You should not worry if you are not acknowledged by other people. Rather you should worry that there is nothing about you that should be, or deserves to be, acknowledged by others. This is similar to a previous section: